History (from the ancient Greek ἱστορία), which means "inquiry", "knowledge derived from research") is the science that studies the man and his action in time and in space, concomitant to the analysis of the processes and events that occurred in the past. The history, as the term, you can also check all information of the past that may have been required or filed in all languages all over the world, this as a means of records.
The word history has its origin in the investigations of Herodotus, whose term in ancient Greek is Ἱστορίαι (History). However, it will be Thucydides, the first to apply critical methods, such as the crossing of data and different sources. The historical survey begins when the men are the elements of its existence in the achievements of their ancestors. This study, from the European point of view, is divided into two major periods: prehistory and History.
Historians use multiple sources of information to build the succession of historical processes; as, for example, writings, recordings, interviews (oral history) and archaeological findings. Some approaches are more frequent in certain periods than in others, and the study of History ends up by presenting the customs and fashion (the historian of the demand, at present, the answers about the past, or whatever, is influenced by this).
The previous events to the written records belong to the prehistory and to the societies that coexist with companies that you already know the writing (this is the case, for example, of the Celtic peoples of the culture of Tène) and belong to the Proto-History.
Conceptions of formal History
In its evolution, the History is presented in at least three ways. The simple record of the scientific evaluation there was a long process. They are:
The story narrative - The narrator believes in presenting the events without concerns with the causes, the results, or the accuracy. It also does not employ any methodological process.
History - Pragmatic Exposes the events with visible concern didactics. The historian wants to change the customs politicians, to correct the contemporary and the path that is used to show the errors of the past. The greeks Herodotus and Thucydides, and the roman marco tulio Cicero ("History is The teacher of life") represent this conception.
The history of science – Reflects a concern with the truth, with the method, a critical analysis of causes and consequences, time and space. This conception is defined from the mindset from the philosophical ideas that have guided the French Revolution of 1789. Takes body with the discussion of dialectic (Hegel and Marx) in the XIX century and consolidated with the theses of Leopold Von Ranke, the creator of the Rankeanismo, which answers the so-called "Positive Historical" (that is not related to positivism politician Augusto Comte) and, subsequently, with the emergence of the School of the Annales, in the beginning of the XX century
The history of the Annales (the School of the Annales) - French historians Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre founded in 1929 the magazine studies, "Annales d'histoire economic and social", where he broke definitely with the cult of the heroes and the allocation of the historical action of the so-called men distinguished representatives of the elites. For these scholars, the everyday, the art, the chores of the people and the social psychology are fundamental elements for the understanding of the transformations undertaken by humanity.