Globalization is a concept that seeks to define the reality of our planet as a connected whole, which is more like a single society, beyond national borders, ethnic and religious differences, political ideologies and socio-economic or cultural conditions. It consists in expanding the economic, cultural and political dependence of the countries of the world, which is caused by the unprecedented increase in international activity, world trade in goods and services, the flow of capital, as well as the Means of transport, and the use of new information and communication technologies (satellite technologies and especially the Internet).
Globalization was initially considered only in the sphere of economics. As trade and the capital market gradually increased, the economies of nations were increasingly intertwined, there was greater freedom of markets and exchanges of products. However, nowadays globalization, in addition to focusing on the economy, also does so in technological innovation, leisure and changes in justice.
The cultural identity of the various peoples today is being homogenized or generalized according to certain common patterns in march towards a standardized culture. This process is fostered by the powers generating new consumption needs, which in turn manage the social media and the production offered.
Bearing in mind the new socio-cultural scene that unfolds before our eyes at the turn of the century, in which certain processes that reveal change take place, such as the growing loss of weight of local and national public institutions for the benefit of business conglomerates of transnational reach, the reformulation of the patterns of urban settlement and coexistence, the re-elaboration of one's own, due to the predominance of goods and messages coming from a globalized economy and culture over those generated in the city and nation to which the consequent redefinition of the sense of belonging and identity of the people and the passage of the citizen as a representative of a public opinion to the citizen as a consumer interested in enjoying a certain quality of life, we must question about the negative impact that these cause on different cultural realities of the peoples, in particular on their respective identities, accepting as an inescapable fact the march towards the global village, as a paradigm of constitution of the world with a view to the homogenization of the planet in the political, economic and social.
The technological advance in transport, whether by land, sea or air, has allowed more people to travel from one end of the world map to the other because it is now cheaper and more feasible. Through the media one can learn the changes and scenarios that are happening in another part of the world, communicate with people from different countries, among others. It is possible to say that the new technologies, show greater speed of the displacements, greater acceleration of information, introducing synergies potenciadoras of the process of globalization.
It should be noted that many people and organizations are hesitant about the achievement and benefits of globalization. These are often expressed and demand that countries with low resources can achieve economic development other than that promoted by large international organizations.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization
Production costs are lowered and therefore products are offered at lower prices.
It increases employment in places where multinationals arrive, especially in underdeveloped countries.
It increases the competitiveness between the entrepreneurs and raises the quality of the products.
Technological improvements are discovered and implemented that help the production and speed of economic transactions.
Greater accessibility to goods that could not previously be obtained in underdeveloped countries.
Greater economic inequality between developed and underdeveloped countries due to concentration of capital in developed countries (external capital accumulation).
Economic inequality within each nation as globalization benefits large and powerful companies.
In developed countries, unemployment and poverty will increase because large enterprises migrate to other places in search of cheap labor and raw materials.
Greater economic interference on the part of developed countries towards underdeveloped or developing countries.
Degradation of the environment by the exploitation of resources.
Less opportunity to compete with large multinational companies.
Increased capital flight because when the multinational companies decide, they move to other countries that offer them better advantages in their production.